The strangest factor concerning the Imaginative and prescient Professional can be the factor that makes it most uniquely Apple: it’s acquired a giant shiny bubble glass entrance, which makes it stand out from the aluminum- and plastic-shrouded competitors, even when it’s off. And when it’s on, it’s even stranger—as an alternative of being absolutely clear, behind the glass, an odd lenticular display shows a 3D-ish video of the consumer’s eyes, emulating their gaze. Apple calls it the EyeSight show, and when the consumer is you, it type of, kind of, virtually seems to be like you possibly can see by smokey glass.

Tech journalists have referred to as EyeSight “bizarre,” “uncanny,” and “of highly dubious utility.” However from a restore perspective, it looks like an achilles heel. Why introduce one other display, extra connectors, and so many extra factors of failure—all for the sake of a barely creepy characteristic? In fact, we needed to dig in and determine the way it works. 

We knew it might be robust to get inside (it was). We hoped we wouldn’t break something (we did). However we knew it might be price it to see all the brand new expertise Apple squeezed into this factor, from the EyeSight show to the sensor array, the exterior battery again to the R1 chip. We introduced within the heavy hitters for this teardown, together with x-ray views of the body and high-resolution microscope pictures of the shows. 

We’ve acquired loads of observations, some opinions, and a pair educated guesses about why we acquired the Imaginative and prescient Professional now we have at the moment on the teardown desk. There’s a lot on this machine, so we’re splitting our evaluation into two, with extra element on the lens system and silicon coming in just a few days.

Let’s go spelunking right into a never-before-explored cave of glass.

The glass panel is glued on, after all, and it took a lot of warmth and time, however we eliminated it with out breakage. Granted it didn’t come out unscathed—the glass has a protecting plastic movie that acquired just a little peeled up and perhaps a bit melted. Apple’s retail fixers would possibly have sooner fingers than us—however they’ll charge you $799 to switch damaged entrance glass. 

Heavy Metallic

At 34 grams, the glass might not be heavy by itself, however absolutely kitted out with the battery the Imaginative and prescient Professional weighs over a kilogram. 

Right here’s the place Apple has a carried out a little bit of a sleight of hand. Fastidiously hidden in most publicity pictures is the exterior battery, which rides alongside in your pocket somewhat than in your headset. As within the early days of VR, integrating the battery as it’s now would make the machine loopy heavy. And hey, we’re large followers of modular batteries, when the battery inevitably stops holding a cost in a year or three, you possibly can exchange it painlessly. Apple’s {hardware} staff may additionally be anticipating the upcoming EU battery regulation, which would require all electronics to have user-replaceable batteries by 2027.

The battery pack alone weighs 353 grams and is fabricated from three iPhone-sized batteries, delivering a grand whole of 35.9 Wh, greater than double an iPhone 15 Professional’s 17.3 Wh. The cells themselves are 184 g apiece, surprisingly solely about half the load of the total battery pack. To get inside, we needed to soften some perimeter adhesive and launch a set of single-use steel clips—then twist open Torx screws galore.

Three batteries in the aluminum pack, at ~3.8V each in series, 3166 mAh each, supplying 11.34 Volts in total.

Add the weight of the battery pack and the headset together and you get, as mentioned above, over a kilogram—which would be a really heavy pair of glasses. For comparison, the Quest Pro weighs 722 g and the Quest 3 clocks in at 515 g.

But weight isn’t just about how it tips the scales. It’s about balance. The weight of the Vision Pro largely rests on your face, all the tech is at the front and even the Pro Dual Loop Band can’t overcome it all without a counterbalance. Apple patented a design for a rear-mounted battery pack, which could’ve helped steadiness out the heavy entrance—although it’s laborious to think about desirous to put on one thing 150% as heavy. 

So if we’re simply counting the load in your face—the show module, sans battery, within the Meta Quest Professional is 522 grams. The identical meeting within the Imaginative and prescient Professional is 532 grams, successfully the identical. The important thing distinction in these models is within the weight distribution, and a a lot heavier pocket battery within the Imaginative and prescient Professional.

First impressions, although, are fairly good. “The burden isn’t as dangerous as anticipated, though it’s undoubtedly on my brow/cheeks versus my head which feels bizarre, like somebody is pushing on my head to tilt it down,” says iFixit teardown veteran Sam Goldheart from the teardown lab.


The Imaginative and prescient Professional comes with each a 3D-knitted Solo Knit Band and a Twin Loop Band. These connect to the ends of the stems, simply behind the audio system. The now-iconic Solo Knit Band is the one which seen in all of the publicity pictures, and it does look cool. It wraps across the again of your head, and also you modify the match with a dial on the aspect, much like the way you would possibly tighten a motorbike helmet. 

So how does it really feel? “The materials are sooo good,” says Sam. There’s a really effective, soft weave on the Solo Knit Band, and it’s stretchy sufficient to accommodate a ponytail and nonetheless assist the face unit.  

The audio system are mounted onto the 2 inflexible bands that be part of to the principle headset. To launch these, you utilize our previous pal, the SIM-card elimination software. The holes are contained in the temples of the principle headset, and the detachable bands have a row {of electrical} contacts, identical to Lighting connectors, once more. Simply detachable elements? Solely calls for instruments you’ve in all probability already acquired? We like to see it. This makes us hope that opening the headset won’t be as daunting as we first assumed.

This modular design is similar to the AirPods Max, which we fairly favored. Wearables are really easy to break that it makes good sense to have simply swappable speaker modules. We tried to go additional and pry the speaker out of the silicon body, and immediately broke the molded cables inside. That’s all proper, you’re not going to want to pry the speaker modules open.

The audio system—not fairly as laborious to get into as a pair of AirPods Professional, however virtually.

The audio system themselves level again in direction of your ears. It is a fairly clear indication that you simply’re not meant to put on this anyplace noisy. You’ll be able to put on your AirPods Professional when you desire—and if you need lossless, low-latency audio, they’ll should be the newest USB-C model.

On the left aspect is the proprietary battery cable connection, which snaps into place with a magnet after which twists to lock. We perceive why Apple used a non-standard connector right here, even when we don’t adore it—a minimum of it might probably’t be yanked out by a passing little one, or when the wire inevitably catches in your chair. However the plug on the different finish of the cable is unforgivable. As an alternative of terminating with a USB-C plug, it connects to the battery pack with what seems to be like a proprietary outsized Lightning connector, which you launch utilizing a paperclip or SIM-removal software.

The locking design is nice, however why couldn’t it’s USB-C Apple? WHY?

This connector means that you would be able to’t simply swap within the USB-C battery pack you already personal. Lame.

Aww, such a cute household snap!

Gentle Seals and Face Cushions

Each face is completely different, and Apple is promoting 28 different light-seal parts to cowl all of the completely different face configurations and dimensions. Your seal measurement additionally adjustments when you want Zeiss lens inserts. That’s as a result of the seals and cushions are additionally used to ensure you have the proper eye place relative to the stereo screens and eye sensors. Because of this Apple is hand-packing each Imaginative and prescient Professional order—there’s simply no “customary” setup.

Guess who was sporting make-up?

The seals connect to the principle headset utilizing magnets, which is Apple through-and-through—it’s both glued in place, or extraordinarily simple to swap. This modularity is a brute power try and get a perfect match in your face. It will likely be attention-grabbing to see if that is required long-term, or if future units discover a easier solution to accomplish this. In the meanwhile, magnets are higher than velcro as a result of they will snap the seals into precise alignment. Suppose how MagSafe snatches the charger and features it up completely over the iPhone’s inductive charging coil.

As for cleansing the seals, Apple recommends water and unscented dish cleaning soap, which can assist cease these sweat-soaking elements from getting too gross, and will likely be particularly good for anybody sporting make-up. In her Wall Street Journal video the place she selflessly wore the headset for twenty-four hours, Joanna Stern mentioned her make-up caked the within of the seals. And our personal Sam Goldheart had the very same drawback this morning.

Underneath the magnetic seals is a everlasting seal, additionally wrapped in a knit material, however much less prone to get smudged. It additionally occurs to be the best way into the inside of the headset. Eradicating it reveals one other shock: a skinny stretchy sheet of plastic. Whether or not it’s to compensate for gaps within the knit, or to maintain particulates out of the innner workings, we’re to not positive. However we’re sure this bit seems to be very masked superhero.

EyeSight Show

The front-facing gogglebox is the defining characteristic of the Imaginative and prescient Professional, and, now that evaluations are pouring in, one in all its most controversial.

The patent for the EyeSight describes three show modes: “inner focus,” “exterior engagement,” and “don’t disturb.” The patent has pages and pages of pictures that may be displayed on the display—all types of cartoon animal eyes, biometric evaluation captured by different sensors, hearts when the consumer is speaking to a cherished one. The interior digicam would possibly learn emotional states and venture pictures based mostly on these emotional states.

Cool thought. In follow, the EyeSight show is so dim and low-resolution that reviewers say it’s laborious to see a lot on it. The WSJ’s Joanna Stern called it “laborious to see,” and Marques Brownlee (aka MKBHD) said, “You’ll be able to barely see my eyes after I’m sporting the headset.” 

It seems that when the EyeSight shows your eyes, it isn’t simply displaying a single video feed of your eyes; it’s exhibiting a bunch of movies of your eyes. Exploring contained in the glass shell, we discovered three layers for the front-facing show: a widening layer, a lenticular layer, and the OLED show itself.

Why Does EyeSight Look So Wonky?

Apple wanted to achieve something very specific: an animated, 3D-looking face with eyes. They had to make very strategic design choices and compromises to accomplish this.

Human brains are very sensitive to faces and expressions, its why the uncanny valley is a thing, and part of that is depth sensing. Apple needed to create a believable 3D effect. One reason why 3D renderings don’t look truly 3D is because they lack a stereoscopic effect. For something to look 3D, we need to see subtly different images with each eye. The Vision Pro tackles this problem with lenticular lenses.

A lenticular lens displays different images when viewed from different angles. You can use this effect to simulate movement with two frames of an action. Or, you can create a stereoscopic 3D effect with images of the same subject from different angles.

The Vision Pro has a lenticular layer on top of the exterior OLED panel. VisionOS renders multiple face images—call them A and B—slices them up, and displays A from one angle serving your left eye, and B from another serving your right eye. This creates a 3D face via the stereoscopic effect. And those angles are tiny, and they are legion, it takes a fancy Evident Scientific microscope to essentially see what we imply.

The curved ridges of the lenticular lens layer.
Pixels bending and shining by the lenticular layer

There are compromises to this method. The horizontal decision is dramatically decreased, being divided between every of the a number of pictures. For instance, if two pictures are displayed on a 2000 pixel broad show, every picture solely has 1000 horizontal pixels to work with. Even by we don’t know the decision of the show, nor do we all know the variety of pictures being interwoven, the decision is essentially decreased. And that may be a main motive why EyeSight eyes appear blurry.

In entrance of the lenticular layer is one other plastic lens layer, with equally lenticular ridges. This layer seems to stretch the projected face broad sufficient to suit the width of the Imaginative and prescient Professional. Eradicating this layer and booting the Professional showcases some very oddly pinched eyes.

Moreover the lens probably limits the efficient viewing angle. Limiting the impact to straight in entrance of the Imaginative and prescient Professional limits artifacting you would possibly see at excessive angles, kind of like a privateness filter. The draw back is that you simply’re passing an already complicated, blurry picture by one more layer of lens. This makes it even blurrier and darker.

Lens Inserts, Stereo Shows

You’ll be able to see the define of the ovoid lens inserts on this x-rays from our illuminous buddies at Creative Electron, who spent $3,500 so you would see this photograph.

The Imaginative and prescient Professional itself performs an automatic interpupillary distance adjustment whenever you first put it on, with motors adjusting the positioning of the lenses. For all the things else there’s prescription lenses.

Apple Shops have a machine to find out approximate prescription glasses power whenever you are available for a demo. For customers with eye situations (like strabismus) that may intrude with eye monitoring, the Imaginative and prescient Professional gives alternative interaction controls within the accessibility options. Nevertheless, now we have heard that lenses are usually not accessible for individuals who have astigmatism, which is 40% of the population. If something extra about that, depart it within the feedback. 

The prescription insert lenses themselves require “pairing” with the headset. The choice has already borne poor UI, John Gruber acquired an incorrect calibration code together with his evaluate unit that made eye monitoring carry out poorly. We hate parts pairing on precept, and there’s acquired to be a solution to allow calibration whereas nonetheless permitting third celebration lenses.

Oh, and Inventive Electron was bored after one photograph so that they shot us a 360 spin. Candy!

R1 and M2 Chips

The headset runs on an M2 Mac chip, in tandem with the brand new R1 chip—which is particularly accountable for processing the enter from 12 cameras, the LiDAR sensor, and the TrueDepth digicam, all with a minimal of latency. With AR, you have to venture the digicam view of the actual world into the consumer’s eyes as quick as doable, in any other case their perceived motions received’t match up with what they see, which is a quick ticket to Vomitsville. 

To maintain up, the R1 uses a real-time operating system. That implies that duties are at all times executed in a set period of time. Most of our computer systems run on a time-sharing working system, which schedules duties on the fly, and may end up in slowdowns. Take into consideration jittery mouse cursors, or spinning seaside balls, and also you’ve acquired the concept. That received’t fly with one thing as important as pass-through video and object rendering. Any glitch there could be like a glitch within the Matrix, and could be jarring at finest, and completely nauseating at worst. It’d even trigger you to stumble and fall.

An Unimaginable Feat, With One Actually Bizarre Design Determination

The unique iPhone did one thing related. When its underpowered chips couldn’t sustain with rendering a fast-scrolling web page, it might switch to a gray-and-white checkerboard, which stored up with all of your flicks and swipes. Apple prioritized responsiveness over graphical constancy. This time round, they’ve prioritized graphics constancy and responsiveness, and brought the hit on battery life, weight, and warmth. Given how necessary the expertise is to Apple’s AR expertise, that is in all probability the appropriate alternative for a primary technology machine.

The Imaginative and prescient Professional is insanely formidable. Sure, it’s heavy, and the glass is fragile, and that tethered battery would possibly get annoying. However Apple has managed to pack the facility of a Mac, plus the efficiency of a brand new devoted AR chip, into a pc that you would be able to put on in your face.

Repairability-wise, it’s not nice, however on the plus aspect, a number of the connections are fairly pleasant. It is best to have seen our teardown staff leap up once they realized that the aspect arms may very well be popped out utilizing the SIM-removal software, for instance, and the magnetic cushions are but extra user-friendly.

So why, when this factor clearly took years and years to create—and is Apple’s newest guess on the way forward for computing—did Apple fail to dwell as much as their very own requirements with the EyeSight display?

It’s dim, it’s low-resolution, and it provides loads of bulk, weight, complexity, and expense to probably the most weight-sensitive a part of the headset. Did they lastly hit the drop useless date and miss their focused efficiency? May it’s a late-stage manufacturing error? Regardless, we’re positive bringing it to market was a troublesome choice.

We’ve been disassembling VR headsets for the reason that authentic Oculus, they usually proceed to shock and delight. There’s a lot fascinating mechanical and optical design packed in right here. Apple’s seamless integration of sensors for rock-solid location monitoring is simply phenomenal, and we’re wanting to dive into how they did it.

We’re not accomplished with our evaluation: there’s heaps extra to research inside this machine. Subsequent time, we’ll dive into the interior shows, sensor arrays and we’ll award a repairability rating.

What else are you excited to see? IPD calibration motors, cooling, particular chips or circuitry? Comply with alongside on social media, or verify again right here in just a few shakes, we’ve acquired lots extra coming.

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